Multilevel Analysis Factors of Air Exposure in the Neighborhood of Residence to the Risk of Pneumonia in Toddler
Background: Toddler is prone to malnutrition and disease. The highest cause of the death is infectious diseases in toddler, called pneumonia (WHO, 2010). There are an estimated 1.6 million or 14% of deaths caused pneumonia every year, surpassing deaths from AIDS 2%, malaria 8% and measles 1% (WHO, 2008). The incidence of pneumonia in Indonesia has increased, from 2007 about 2.1% and in 2013 about 2.7%. Pneumonia in toddler in Indonesia is an issue that is important to do the actions of prevention and control penumonia. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of air exposure and exposure in the neighborhood residence to the risk of pneumonia incidence in toddler.
Subject and Method : The design that used in this research is observational analytic using case control approach. The study was conducted on August 1 - September 14, 2016 in Batur District, Banjarnegara regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The independent variables are exposure to CO2, exposure to SO2, CO exposure, H2S exposure and exposure to household fumes. Dependent variable is toddler pneumonia. The sampling technique used was fix disease sampling, with a ratio of 1: 1 between the disease (case) and non-disease (control) groups, totaling 140 respondents. Data collection techniques used questionnaires, checklists and medical records. Data were analyzed using Logistic Regression Analysis with Multilevel Approach using Stata 13 program.
Results : There is no effect of SO2, CO2, CO (OR=1.16; CI=0.39-3.39; p=0.785), H2S (OR=1.000; CI=0.41-2.40; p= 1.000) with the incidence of pneumonia in toddler . There is an effect of air exposure in the home (OR=3.98; CI=1.96-8.07; p<0.001) with the incidence of pneumonia in toddler. The condition of each RT has a contextual influence on the variation of the incidence of pneumonia toddler (ICC = 33.30%; role of thumb 5-8%; likelihood ratio p = 0.001; CI(95%) = 0.47-5.69).
Conclusion : There is no effect of CO, H2S, CO2 and SO2 exposure to pneumonia in toddler There is an effect of air exposure in the home with the incidence of pneumonia in toddler. The condition of each RT has a contextual influence on the variation of the incidence of pneumonia in toddler, so it needs to be considered.