Internal and External Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression: a Systematic Review
Introduction: Transition period being a parent is a complex psychological process of development. Birth causes changes in the personal and family patterns. Changes in lifestyle, sleep patterns, recreation, family relationship and identity become characteristic of transition period. This transition represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression has a high prevalence in community. Results of research conducted Epifianio et al (2015) showed 20.8% of 75 new mothers in Parlemo and Trapani Italy experience postpartum depression within the first month of birth. Postpartum depression has a high prevalence in community. Results of research conducted Epifianio et al (2015) showed 20.8% of 75 new mothers in Parlemo and Trapani Italy experience postpartum depression within the first month of birth.
Subject and Method: A systematic review of the international literature published from 2006 through 2015 was performed in Science direct, Pubmed, Plos One, BMC, Researchgate and Elsevier. The inclusion paper: the papers were assesed for potential risk of depression postpartum, an original articles, English or Indonesian language. The exclusion criteria was and case series, case reports, and review articles with no original data. In addition, we excluded studies with < 20 subjects so that the included studies would have sufficient power to examine the association for at least 1 potential risk factor.
Result: A total 6 articles met inclusion criteria. The 6 studies used 2 different depression screeners, with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (83%) and Beck Depression Inventory (17%). One article used a psychosocial risk factor questionnaire that covered key demographic and psychosocial information. Overall, we include 7 potential risk factors. Formula feeding in place of breastfeeding, a history of depression, cigarette smoking, anxiety during pregnancy, major stress event, low social support level and nutritions are those potential risk factors for post partum depression. Table 1 displays the overall trend of association for each potential risk factor.
Conclusion: Postpartum depression has various predisposition factors. These factors consits of internal factor such as breastfeeding problem, history of anxiety and depression, smoking and nutrition. The external factors are stress event and social support.